Run Government Like a Business?

Should we run government like a business? While it sounds nice, it may be impossible. The great Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises told us why in his classic 1944 book entitled Bureaucracy. He explained that only through the pricing mechanism of private markets can we direct goods and services to their highest-valued uses.

Mises was the first to show that socialism is doomed to fail because it lacks market prices for the means of production. He also explained why even in our capitalistic society, government bureaucrats have no way of allocating resources rationally, even if they want to. Even with the best of intentions, a bureaucrat can’t separate what is waste from what is productive.

Mises explained that cost-benefit analysis in government is pointless because no one knows the potential alternative uses for the resources. In spite of his time-tested insights, some politicians still think they somehow can make government efficient without benefit of the market price system.

Contracting out and privatizing government functions will help. The more we can do in the private sector, which adheres to market principles, the more efficient our economy will become. But as long as government does so much in our lives, it will do it uneconomically. Neither Barack Obama and John Kitzhaber nor their Republican counterparts can make the federal or state government run like a business. Nobody can.


Steve Buckstein is Senior Policy Analyst and Founder at Cascade Policy Institute, Oregon’s free market public policy research center.

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  • Tim Bieligk of Highlands Ranch, Colorado

    The entire mission of any sound business is to seek and create new revenue. The mission would be – indeed, is – catastrophic if and when adopted by governing authorities.

  • Steve Plunk

    The essential problem as I see it is the government wanting to do too much for too many people no matter what the cost. It sees every need as it’s own responsibility to fill and every perceived injustice as it’s responsibility to correct. Government has no concept of it’s limitations and as a result grows ever bigger while delivering diminishing returns.

    Government will continue to drain away private capital and squander it. Private contracting may help but then it becomes ripe for corruption. The solution has been and continues to be smaller government. Less cash equals less power equals less waste and corruption. We need to turn this ship around.

  • valley p

    Every European nation has a more economically efficient health care delivery system than we do, Under which a far higher percent of their people get good medical care than here, yet their systems are way more socialized than ours. How would Mises explain this?

    • Steve Plunk

      One could argue very effectively that Europe’s health care model is neither efficient or that it delivers better services to it’s citizens. The question of sustainability must also be answered as the population ages.

      • eagle eye

        The U.S. spends something like half again as much on health care as a % of GDP as the average European country. While having significantly lower life expectancy and many uninsured people. Of course, there could be other reasons for the lower outcomes. But that doesn’t on the face of it sound like such a hot case for its being more efficient.

        • Steve Plunk

          Lower life expectancy could be a result of many factors having nothing to do with health care. Take obesity for instance. The number of uninsured is not a good measure either. I have young employees who choose to not buy insurance.

          The problem is not insurance but cost of services. No one seems to want to talk about why it costs so much to see a doctor or why an aspirin cost $10 bucks at the hospital. Costs have to be controlled before any insurance reform. The cost control should come in small steps that can be measured for effectiveness and either expanded or curtailed.

          I’ve heard too many horror stories of socialized medicine to believe it gives better service or more efficiency.

          • eagle eye

            As I said, there could be lots of factors. But lower life expectancy, on the face of it, is at least a warning sign that things are not working so well. A 50% higher cost (relative to GDP) is not, I will submit again, a good argument that we are more efficient. Do we have $10 dollar aspirin when other countries don’t? Could that perhaps be because they have more government intervention?\

            Young people who choose not to have health insurance is also not a good argument. When they gete pregnant, or are unfortunate to get cancer, or get in a terrible wreck, somebody ends up paying, or they go without needed care, or both. In my opinion, coverage should be mandatory.

  • Rupert in Springfield

    Private contracting can work, however only to the extent it is an open and fair process.

    Even then it is an imperfect process since we dont really have private contracting in this country. With set asides, government preferences and Davis Bacon act nonsense private contracting can often become a way of shifting the problem rather than solving it.

    Look, no one doubts that private companies tend to run more efficiently and deliver better services than government run ones. However private contracting the extent to which it cures anything is inversely proportional to the amount of government control and collusion in the private contracting process. At the stage we are at these days, that collusion and control can often provide a cure that is worse than the disease.

    • valley p

      “Look, no one doubts that private companies tend to run more efficiently and deliver better services than government run ones.”

      The “tend to” do so in certain types of services, but not in others. They are way less efficient in delivering health insurance than the government, virtually any government is. Their “soldiers” are paid 10 times what we pay government soldiers. Their cops are undertrained and suitable mostly for not very demanding assignments. Private toll roads are darned expensive to drive on compared with public highways. Left un-baby sat by bureaucrats, the private financial sector cheats, steals, and commits fraud with abandon.

      But, the private sector certainly delivers better restaurant food and service, better newspapers, more entertaining TV and movies among other things. I can’t imagine what an episode of law and Order written and directed by the government would be like. And school cafeterias? Yuck.

      • Rupert in Springfield

        >They are way less efficient in delivering health insurance than the government, virtually any government is.

        Not really. When compared on an accurate basis government is generally less efficient. Generally when one considers governments vastly lower operating costs its actually quite remarkable they don’t do better.

        We all know this fairly intuitively – no one raves about Medicaid, Medicare is really only used because the taxpayer pays for it, not the recipient and even then one often has to carry supplemental insurance.

        Oh well. you believe whatever comes off the party fax machine.

        • valley p

          There is no data anywhere I have ever seen that shows private health insurance as delivering this service more efficiently than any government on earth. If you can point to something that says otherwise, great. If not, you are just showing your bias.

          By efficiency, I mean per dollar spent, how much goes to health care and how much to overhead. If you have a better measure of efficiency, let us in on it.

          • Rupert in Springfield

            >If you can point to something that says otherwise, great. If not, you are just showing your bias.

            Medicare vs. Private. Virtually the same admin costs. Considering that Medicare doesn’t have nearly the same costs as private insurance that should be your first clue.

            >By efficiency, I mean per dollar spent, how much goes to health care and how much to overhead. If you have a better measure of efficiency, let us in on it.

            First engage brain. Second actually think. The fact that you are comparing overhead as the basis for judgment is the first clue that you are doing neither as government would obviously have a huge real as well as statistical advantage there.

            Look, this has been pointed out to you endlessly and it usually results in Dean Weasel number one, topic shift. Either face facts or live in fantasy land.

    • Steve Plunk

      Rupert, That collusion and control has been increasing to the point privatization has lost much of it’s luster. Let’s hope we can fix it before it gets worse.

      • Rupert in Springfield

        Id totally agree. The basic logical problem is if you cannot trust the people in government to run the agency proposed for privatization, then why would it make sense to trust them with awarding the contract?

        Sure, government has to do some things. However when the question arises if something should be contracted out to private industry, the first question should be should government be doing the function at all. If it should, then proceed, if not, then get rid of something rather than privatize and hope it gets better.

  • Bob Clark

    I believe deeply in free markets, where the collective wisdom of individual actions tests economic ideas most rigorously for value and affordability.

    That said, free markets only work within a political structure and the two are inseparable. Free markets have shown they will at times go to extremes with serious consequences, especially with over leveraging and huge bets risked. Free markets are susceptible to short sightness. In these instances, it is not so much if the economic idea is worthy but how one can ride the idea before the veil of worthiness is removed from the idea. Free markets can get to be much like a poker game which starts out innocent enough but the stakes start to pile up until the whole thing gets out of hand.

    On the other hand, it is wishful to think government can stop such melt downs and that government itself doesn’t also go to such excesses. For instance, government removed the Glass Steagall act which had served the country well for some 60 years after the last financial melt down in the 1930s, allowing the housing market bubble of the 00s to get well beyond excess. In fact, half of all mortgages were greased for sale by none other than government enterprises Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. And look at the current Greek and Irish moments where government spends well beyond the means of the people represented. And of course, there’s the big crash of the old Soviet Union.

    So, what we are stuck with is a ying yang of free market restriction and liberalization where government steps in after a poker party goes bad setting new rules; to only to be eased or avoided by government and free markets in years subsequent.

    I don’t know if there’s any escaping this ying yang motion. It could be argued even central planning eventually subcumbs to free market solutions as the weight of bureaucracy kills the ability for plans to actually be successful. But I think this process is much longer, spanning several generations. As a result central planning is not unlike the road back to a thousand years of darkness.

    Milton Friedman once delivered a knock out blow (debate wise) to none other than Phil Donahue on Donahue’s show. The gist was Friedman would much rather face the competitiveness and fairness of the objective marketplace than the picking of winners and losers by the government class, or in this case Donahue himself. I’m with Friedman.

    • Steve Buckstein

      Milton Friedman once delivered a knock out blow (debate wise) to none other than Phil Donahue…

      I’m with Friedman too, Bob. The segment you’re referring to has come to be known as the Greed video. It’s only about 2 minutes long. Well worth watching, or rewatching. And, Donahue himself in later years has said something to the effect that Friedman changed his mind (at least somewhat) on such things.

      Here is the video:

      Greed
      https://cascadepolicy.org/links/1u

  • Bill

    The problem is that most government employees could not run a business, so if they had to operate like one they could not.

    • eagle eye

      Most employees of any kind of course do not “run a business” or run much of anything. But I can think of government employees who have run businesses, and other things more consequential than businesses, sometimes with considerable success: Reagan, Colin Powell, George Schultz, Donald Rumsfeld, Hank Paulson.

      And there were others, by the way, who never ran businesses, but were pretty successful in and out of government: Dwight Eisenhower, Henry Kissinger ……

  • eagle eye

    Government, of course, is not a business, so it cannot be run like one, nor should it. But that doesn’t mean it can’t be made more business-like.

    It’s evident that libertarians, many conservatives, and perhaps most people on the “right” do not WANT government to work. Hence, the part straw man, part red herring about it being impossible to run government like a business.

    One of the ways that the right repeatedly sabotages itself is by the determination to show that government can’t work. Even W. Bush had tendencies in this direction — “you should elect us because we have proved that government is unworkable.” Not a very good political posture.

    One of Reagan’s great achievements — almost forgotten now — was that he actually made government work! The reputation of the federal government, which had been in tatters, spiked again with Reagan, to a level from which it has had a long decline. That was a huge part of his success in governing and in getting re-elected.

    • Rupert in Springfield

      >Even W. Bush had tendencies in this direction — “you should elect us because we have proved that government is unworkable.” Not a very good political posture.

      Gotta love it when the guys who just got their heads handed to them last election start giving advice on what is a good political posture.

      Oh yeah – you guys have some real good ideas on political posture! LOL

      • eagle eye

        As non-psychotic readers here are well aware, I am not “one of them”, until recently, I was a registered Republican (became an Independent during the last election campaign), I voted for W. twice, voted for Dudley, Huffman. But some people who are at least partly sympathetic to the right can see how the right repeatedly sabotages itself.

        • Steve Plunk

          Eagle, Please understand the difficulty we have in not grouping you into the liberal camp. Regardless of who you voted for you seem to consistently defend liberal positions and seldom defend conservative ones. It’s not psychotic to make the assumption you are liberal. Moderate in your liberalism but still liberal. No offense.

          • eagle eye

            I don’t hate government, I don’t hate government workers, I think I actually get fairly decent value for my taxes, I don’t like the rich getting all the increase in weaalth, and I don’t like the way the financial system has looted the country recently. I rate myself center-right. All of that makes me a liberal? Only to a bunch of rightwing fanatics.

          • Steve Plunk

            The story out from the CBO today is all but $25 billion of the $700 billion loaned to the financial companies will be paid back. That’s contrary to your opinion they looted taxpayers. The government looted taxpayers with it’s failed stimulus that amounted to… well nobody really knows but it was supposed to be around $800 billion.

            Now I tried nicely to explain why people perceive you as a liberal. You can ignore that honest, respectful assessment if you like but it doesn’t change it. Your response only reinforced the impression.

          • eagle eye

            As I’ve said before, you are very naive — especially for someone who is supposed to have a background in finance! Yes, they “paid it back” — with free money provided by the government! Which they promptly “invested” in government bonds. And then they “paid back” the government. A neat trick. I’ll bet a lot of homeowners would like such a sweet deal.

            And of course, unlike the recipients of the stimulus, the finance guys had brought the economy to the brink of destruction, then demanded that they government bail them out. And oh yeah, they’re back making millions and tens of millions per year for their great work. Nice work if you can get it. Of course, you need to have the kind of “talent” that these finance guys have. Being a SEIU member doesn’t cut it.

          • valley p

            Steve, 1/3 of the stimulus was tax cuts. Did we “loot” ourselves on those? About 1/3 propped up state spending, basically keeping teachers and prison guards employed for a year or 2, buying time for state economies to recover. Was paying teachers to teach and guard to guard looting?

            The remaining 1/3 is paying for infrastructure projects. Is patching potholes looting? Is fixing bridges looting? I mean, where do you get off with this stuff?

            For Eagle, I agree the banks made out well on the TARP. But so what? The point of handing them the money was to prevent the economy from going into great depression territory, and it worked, and in the end it will cost the taxpayers little or nothing. I’d call that a success and an example of government doing what it is supposed to do. Though I agree with your point that the private sector basically screwed up and then paid us back with our own money. They should not be praised for this. They should be thanking us.

    • Steve Plunk

      I want government to work but I also want a much smaller government. I’m also tired of all the excuses given when government fails. It seems they always say they were unfunded and never had a chance. How about look at your budget and set realistic goals?

      The American people have come to expect government to fail because they have failed so often.

      • Sol668

        Yet the RW never sees the free market as failing…

        If the free market deteremines that most americans don’t deserve retirement or healthcare, well so be it, thats “good”

        • eagle eye

          Are you saying that e.g. the recent (and contiuning) financial crisis is not an example of the superiority of the free market? Didn’t all those Wall Street financiers belly up and take it without making excuses? Are you saying they weren’t looking for a handout? After all, what’s a trillion or so in free money. Weren’t they setting realistic goals?

          And is so unreasonable for top CEOs to make $50 million a year? After all, the Governor of Oregon makes something like $93K a year. Plus he gets free health insurance, and he’s in PERS. He’ll be taking early retirement very soon and he’s only 70 years old! Should corporate CEOs be treated so shabbily? After all — unlike the government, they aren’t playing with other people’s money — unless you consider shareholders, pension funds, endowments, etc. etc. to be other people’s money!

          • Steve Plunk

            Not all of Wall Street went belly up. A few firms did and few others received help in the form of loans. I see little difference in the government picking winners on Wall Street and the government picking winners in green projects. Government has gotten so big it’s preyed upon by those looking for subsidies or other special treatment. Our governor just gave away millions to an electric charging station manufacturer that has never shown a profit and is only a few years old.

            Part of being free market is the freedom to fail. I see that as a better choice than having the government decide who succeeds or who fails. The CEO making $50 million? Who decides what he should be making? It may be too much but if the government can decide how much he makes then soon enough they’ll tell us what the bag boy at the grocery store should make or what a fair price for digging a ditch is. No thanks, I would rather live with the rich guy getting rich than a bureaucrat making all the decisions about who deserves what.

            The free market may not be the perfect market but it beats the government controlled market and history backs that assessment.

  • Sol668

    Another yatch for a rich man? Efficient

    Healthcare for average americans? Inefficient

    lol, this sort of blind market utopism can only be put forward by the most ridiculous of utopists

    • Steve Plunk

      That yacht the rich man bought was built by a boat building yard that employed quite a few skilled laborers. It also bought supplies from local vendors. I suppose they are glad rich people are buying yachts. In the mean time if the yacht is not purchased I doubt any more people get health insurance.

      Once again the problem is perceived as an insurance problem when in fact it’s a cost problem originating at the health care providers. Insurance is merely shared risk.

      Truly understanding the economy is the first step to making it better.

      • Anonymous

        But building and selling 100 cars to 100 middle-class families generates far more jobs than building and selling 1 yacht to 1 rich guy. Surely even conservatives can understand economics at that basic level.

      • SOL668

        Is that why after 30 years of your tax cuts and deregulation, with all your “free market” free trade

        we find ourselves in the worst economy since the great depression? With your only argument being, that we’ve simply not gone far enough, and surely one more tax cut for the wealthy will solve our problems

        The wealthy view themselves as indispensible, more important and more productive then anyone else in society…you share this view..which is why you keep offering a few powerful special interests their every whim…and while they prosper (greatest wealth inequity in US history) average americans struggle with 10% unemployment, and healthcare increasingly becoming a luxury they cannot afford

  • a retired professor

    It’s interesting that public universities provide services at much lower expenditure per student than do private colleges and universities (when everything is taken into account: tuition, public subisidies, endowment income, private gifts, etc.)

    I’ve noticed that a number of people who post here are students or parents of students at public colleges — including some of the most anti-government types imaginable. Even though the state contribution to Oregon public universities has almost become marginal.

    They must be getting a pretty good deal, I’d say.

    • Steve Plunk

      The choice of colleges is often a complex one. Location and housing costs was the largest factor for me both as a student and as a parent. It’s not that it’s a good deal but rather the only deal I can get. While the state may contribute to the system it’s Oregon taxpayers who provide the money to the state.

      As I see it higher education has become a unique beast in the world of economics. The product sold is seldom guaranteed in any manner. The buyers are treated poorly. A near monopoly exists and collusion is rampant. A good portion of the costs are covered by third parties or with borrowed money subsidized by the government. Partial purchase is worth nothing. Accreditation limits the market to those who seek favor in the eyes of certain groups. Buyers are forced to buy things they neither need or want.

      I see plenty of room for improvement.

      • a retired professor

        You make it sound like you and your kid(s) were dragged off to an Oregon public university in a chain gang. I’m sorry you couldn’t find a college to your liking among the thousands available in the United States. (Increasing by dozens a year, decade after decade, by the way.)

        But you ended up at what, the closest public campus in Oregon? Sounds to me like you got a pretty good deal.

    • Sanjean

      I have also noticed that far fewer students actually graduate from these cheaper public universities. So, one might hazard a guess, they are getting their money’s worth.

      • a retired professor

        The graduation rates generally track well with admissions requirements, at the public and private schools both. The public wants access, low graduation rates are the result. Actually, at places like UO and OSU, the graduation rates aren’t that bad.

        But be assured, even taking into account graduation rates, the expenditure per degree conferred is far less at the decent public universities than at the private colleges.

        You’re right in a sense, though: private colleges, which have as much as an order of magnitude more to spend per student than a place like UO, can provide a lot of “student services” that help keep people going to graduation. A Mercedes will give you a more pleasant ride, generally, than an old beat up Chevy, no doubt about it.

        Up to a point, you do get what you pay for.

    • a graduating college student

      I’m a first generation college student, the first in my family to attend. I got a scholarship to UO, having high SAT scores from high school. Will complete my B.S. this year and going on to a top graduate school for my Ph.D.

      I’ve noticed that students who complain all the time are usually unmotivated, ill-prepared, or both. UO is not perfect, but it has been a great deal for me, a life-changer. For such a low-budget place, it has offered a lot. As for living expenses, paying for more expensive colleges, etc. I know students who are putting themselves through, including living expenses, on their own, because they don’t get any money from their parents. They don’t complain all the time, they’re trying to make the most of their lives. If the local public college is not to your liking, start saving money for your kids at birth, and send them to a private college, if that will make everyone happier.

      People who really don’t like a school should try to find another one they like better. I’ve known people who think UO sucks and transferred to OSU, and vice-versa. I knew one guy who thought he was too good for UO, transferred to Yale his second year. He wasn’t as good as me! I thought, bye-bye brother, glad to see you take your sour grapes somewhere else.

  • Anonymous

    Why is it assumed to be desirable that government “be run like a business”? Conservatives regard it as axiomatic that it should be — but why?

    Business and government have very different functions. The function of a business is to make a profit for its shareholders. Profitability is the measure of success for a business. The function of government is to provide necessary services to consumers (citizens). (We can, of course, disagree about what services are “necessary.”) That function often is not compatible with profitability. The satisfaction of the consumers (citizens) is the measure of success for government.

    If when you say “government should be run like a business” you mean government should be run as efficiently as possible, I’m with you. But if you mean government should be run strictly with an eye to the bottom line, it makes no sense.

    • valley p

      Running government in a more business-like way does not mean running it exactly like a business. But having spent 11 years in government, and 20 in the private sector, including running my own business most of that time, there are a lot of things government can do to gain efficiencies along the lines of what private sector businesses do. One small example is that government staff spend a lot more time in meetings than do their counterparts in the private sector. I concluded that the simple reason for this is that time is of the essence to a private business but not in the same way to government workers.

      Simple incentive programs would go a long way. For example, if a department is given a budget and a set of expected outcomes for a given year, and they reach those outcomes while spending less than the full budget, why not let them keep a portion as a bonus and kick the rest back? Workers would have the incentive to maximize productivity and not do things that waste time, like I am doing right now damn it.

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